Wednesday, December 19, 2018

The role of positive automatic cognition in depression and happiness

Let's have a quick review on the topic of satisfaction versus lack of it.  Nowadays knowing about individual happiness and depression are more important than ever before.  Most of the individual diseases are at least in some ways related to these two factors.  Happier people are statistically healthier and more successful in their life than less happy individuals.  One of the most important factors that can have an affect on individual happiness and depression is an individual's overall attitude.  A person with a positive attitude is more psychologically healthy and also displays an absence of depression.  Although positive attitude makes a person healthier and happier, negative attitude enhances a person’s stress.  Therefore, a person with a negative attitude more often than not suffers from depression due to the presence of stress in his or her life.

So on this subject matter, the following hypotheses can be proposed.  First, positive attitude predicts future happiness.  Second, positive attitude predicts future depression.  A person with positive attitude is always thinking positively even in a negative situation.  So we can say that such a person is optimistic.  He or she makes everything in their life seem happier.  A person with a negative attitude tends to be sad more often, so he or she does not enjoy life generally speaking, even in situations that they really like.  These people are pessimistic and they are suffering from depression. 

In conclusion we can confirm that positive attitude predicts future happiness.  Positive attitude has an impact not only on immediate well-being (happiness), but also on overall well-being (happiness).  Also negative attitude predicts future depression.

Sunday, November 11, 2018

Emotional Intelligence, Life Satisfaction, Happiness.

Positive emotion has been one of the interesting factors for determining happiness over the past decade.  There is a relationship between positive attitude and well-being (happiness).  Although there is a relationship between positive attitude and happiness, emotional intelligence is another important factor that can have an affect on happiness.  Emotional intelligence is an ability to express emotion, to process emotional information, an ability to regulate emotions to promote (well-being).  Emotional intelligence is not just a protective factor against negative emotional states but it is also directly related to positive emotions and well-being (happiness).  Also we can say that emotional intelligence has been related to several important life outcomes such as positive mental health and subjective well-being.

In this area we want to analyze the influence of emotional intelligence on life satisfaction and happiness.  There is a hypothesis which states that emotional processing of information influences subjective well-being.  People with high emotional abilities have higher level of life satisfaction.  People with stress have a lower level of emotional intelligence.  Therefore, they are less happy in their life.

In conclusion we can say that a person with a higher level of emotional intelligence is less stressful which results in a higher satisfaction with life and happiness.

Sunday, November 4, 2018

On the Relationship Between Happiness and Stress

Happiness is one the factors that can have a significant effect on an individual’s life.  Enhancing happiness has many essential effects on people’s life.  These include benefits such as better performance rating at work, higher level of income as well as an improved overall health.  There are several factors that can have either a positive or a negative affect on happiness.  One of the most important factors that has a significant affect on happiness is stress.  Stress impedes happiness.  An important way for having higher levels of happiness would be to reduce stress.  Daily hassles are one of the major causes of stress and are ubiquitous in the life of virtually everyone.  Therefore, it is a good idea to examine the relationship between happiness and stress.

We can examine the following hypotheses which is, there would be an inverse relationship between happiness and stress.  People who have a higher level of stress are being less happy than those who have lower levels of stress.  In other words happier people have a lower level of stress so they would seem to be a better person in their life. When individuals are happier, they have lower levels of stress so they can be more productive in their workplace, resulting in higher levels of income.

In conclusion we can strongly support that there is a negative relationship between happiness and stress. When a person suffers from higher levels of stress, he or she is less happy than a person who has lower levels of stress.  Such people with higher stress levels do not have better work performance in their jobs so their income and health are likely to suffer at a lower level.  They suffer from heart disease, blood pressure and other ailments, therefore, they have to reduce their stress in order to be a happier person.

Sunday, October 28, 2018

Perceived happiness level influences evocation of positive emotions

Happiness is an individual’s status of feeling good. Happiness can have explained by the individual’s satisfaction, joy, pleasure or love.  A person with higher levels of happiness has higher levels of health and well-being.  One of the most important factors that can have an affect on happiness is positive emotion.  However, we can strongly say that an individual with a higher level of positive emotions has a higher level of happiness in comparison to those with negative emotion.  Moreover, stress and anxiety can lead to depression which can have a negative affect on happiness.  Therefore, stress and anxiety cause not only depression but also lower levels of happiness and several other diseases as well.

Happiness is associated with health and well-being.  Individuals with high level of happiness have lower levels of stress in compared with those having low levels of happiness.  However, happiness is negatively correlated with stress (depression and anxiety).  So the following hypotheses is proposed.  an individual with high levels of happiness has a stronger positive emotion than individuals with low levels of happiness.  There is a positive relationship between happiness and positive emotion.  Therefore, we can say that there is a negative relationship between happiness and stress which can be caused by negative emotions.

In conclusion we can strongly support that high levels of happiness can increase positive emotions.  Moreover, there is a positive correlation between happiness and positive emotions.  Happiness is associated with positive emotions.  Thus individuals with high levels of happiness have higher levels of well-being.  

Sunday, October 21, 2018

Direct and indirect effect of happiness on wage

Most psychologists nowadays believe that happiness can have a positive effect on an individual’s behaviors in their daily life.  Moreover, happiness is one of the most important factors in the economy that can have a positive effect on other economic factors such as income. 


There is a hypothesis that claims happiness influences the worker’s wages not only directly but also indirectly.  Happiness in other words can indirectly influence wages through it effect on the number of  years of schooling completed by an individual.  In addition to quantity, the quality of schooling also affect the worker’s earnings positively.

Aside from affects of happiness, the lack of stress is also one of the primary reasons for the academic success of children.  When a child grows up in an intact family, where they don’t have stress they can better concentrate on their education.   In addition when the home atmosphere is calm the child has enough time for focusing on their schooling.  Consequently the child can learn more at school.   Having been better educated for a longer period, therefore, he or she can earn more during their adulthood.  Last but not least, more satisfied workers are more productive, and so they can earn more since wages are determined according to productivity.

In conclusion we can strongly support the hypothesis that there is a positive relationship between happiness and a worker’s wages not only directly through the worker’s productivity but also indirectly through the schooling.  Happier people don’t have stress so they can be focusing on their schooling during their childhood and earn more in their adulthood.  Happier people are more productive, and so they tend to have higher levels of income.

Sunday, October 14, 2018

Growing up in intact families lead to higher income

One of the most important things about children is way they are nurtured which is related to the family environment.  When a child grows up in an intact family it leads to his or her success in theirfuture life.  Also we can say strongly that children’s personality can form in their family.

There are two hypotheses that we can examine in this case.  The first one is that people who are living in an intact family in their childhood earn more money during their adulthood due to their years of schooling.  The second hypotheses we can examine is that they have higher income because they are happier than those under eighteen children who are growing up in a non-intact family.  
Growing up in an intact family during childhood improves children’s education due to being in a family environment.  Most the children who are living in these families are calm and exhibit no stress.  They always have their parent’s support, help and their encouragement so they have enough time for study and their educational pursuits.  Therefor they can be successful in the academic domain.  As we know the quantity and quality of schooling can have a positive effect on worker’s earnings these days.  So these children can have higher income as adults.  Another important effect of growing up in an intact family is happiness.  According to the study’s result we can also say that there is a positive relationship between income and happiness.  Children living in intact families can earn more because they are happier than those living in non-intact family.

In conclusion we can say that a person living in an intact family can be happier and have a higher education than those who are not living in intact families. Happy and educated workers in general are more productive so they receive higher wages.  Although living in an intact family can have a positive effect on a person’s adulthood, there are always some exceptions.  People can live in non-intact families but they are still happy and they can achieve their goals to be successful during adulthood. 


Review of "Why Does Growing up in an Intact Family during Childhood Lead to Higher Earnings during Adulthood in the United States?" By MADHU S. MOHANTY and AMAN ULLAH American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Vol. 71, No. 3 (July, 2012).

Tuesday, October 9, 2018

Effect of positive attitude on happiness and wage

In these days’ happiness can have an important role in economy.  And also can have a positive effect on most of the other economic variables.  There are lots of psychological individual capital such as positive attitude, self esteem, motivation, emotional stability and etc, that can have a positive effect on each person’s happiness.

There are two hypotheses in this area: first, psychological capital variables affect the worker’s earning positively.  Second there is a positive relationship between happiness and income.  These two hypotheses are related to each other because some of psychological capital variables such as positive attitude, self esteem and etc can have an effect on worker’s happiness positively.

One of the notable variables that can have positive effect on happiness is positive attitude.  Positive attitude is generally defined as personal characteristic that helps to avoid negative things and also a person with a positive attitude always thinking positively.  Such a these person have a bright sight in his or her life so we can strongly support this idea that this person is optimistic not only about positive things but also about negative situations.  Also they are happier.  A happier worker is more productive in their life even in their work places because they expect that every thing goes well so they can earn more when they are more productive.


In conclusion we can say that positive attitude affects the worker’s earning not only directly but also indirectly through its direct effect on happiness.  In other words, we can say that happier workers are more productive.  Therefor they can have a higher income.  Also a person with positive attitude can be happier.  


Review of "Effects of positive attitude on happiness and wage: Evidence from the US data," by Dr. Madhu S. Mohanty. Journal of Economic Psychology 30 (2009) 884–897.

Saturday, October 6, 2018

Effect of Job Satisfaction On Wages


The most important variable that can have an affect on men and woman differently in their workplaces is job satisfaction. When a worker’s job satisfaction level is high then the workers can be more productive. According to the earlier studies on the one hand some economists believe that the worker’s wage can have an affect on men and women job satisfaction.  On the other hand, very few studies believe that worker’s job satisfaction level enhances their productivity.  Therefore, when a person is more productive means they are working good so the demand for them in that workplace will increase then their wages goes up.  Most of the studies shown that gender differential is very sensitive to worker’s wages.  And also we can say that in general woman have a higher job satisfaction level.  
I completely agree with the author.  Job satisfaction can have an effect on men and women’s job satisfaction. When a person likes his or her job then they can be more productive in their job. These workers are happier than others who don’t like their jobs. Therefore, they can have higher wages. Although women have a higher level of job satisfaction, their wages are lower than men.  

Review of "Effect of job satisfaction on wages and gender wages differential:  a simultaneous equations approach" by Madhu S.Mohanty in Wages and Employment, Chapter 3, 2013 Nova science publishers, Inc 

Friday, October 5, 2018

Aloha World

Aloha.  As a young academic I will use this web log to review both new and old ideas regarding topics in economics. This will be a writing space on economics, viz, a place where I hope to write about my reviews of what is being talked about in various economic circles and journals.  It will also be a place for me to flesh out some of the thoughts or ideas I have on various topics in general economics, global economics, and health economics, in addition to some more specific subtopics such as happiness / satisfaction research.   
I look forward for you to join in a conversation with me to help make a greater contribution in the field.  I may even use this space as a basis or starting point for future publications.  My best effort will be put forth to make your time spent here worthwhile.